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Frequency dictionaries and frequency word counts for the purpose of learning modern languages. Statistical studies preparatory to the construction of auxiliary languages or to the rationalization of spelling. Basic English. Statistical study preparatory to the construction of shorthand and typewriter systems. Telephone conversations. Statistical studies referring to problems of historical grammar and classification of languages. Volek Since only a limited number of expressions are purely emotive, such as interjections, an emotive expression characterized by a direct transmission of meaning to an addressee by contagion, so to speak rather than by reference to a meaning via an arbitrary relation between a sign and its referent involves many other elements.

However, this relationship is modiied and complemented in different ways, according to which an emotive-sign typology can be constructed. Some type of contiguity between the signiier and signiied is usually involved. For example, many languages make use of palatals for expressing various types of emotion—Cz.


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I have developed the idea on higher levels of language, where the idea of the inner form as presented in the work of Anton Marty has been useful: namely, we can ind a certain similarity or contiguity between the structure of the signiier and the emotive component. On boltaet! He babbles!

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Apart of the functions of repetition, I have devoted special atention to the ield of word formation, where iconicity and contiguity of semantive components are displayed in diminutives and augmenta- tives, as well as other derivatives through components of quantity and evaluation. Contrast is another component which can become supportive of emotive meaning.

For more detail, see my chapter on Typology of emotive signs in the above-mentioned book. For example, the issue of inherent expressivity, i. Using the discourse semantics and its interaction with system semantics appeared so far unexamined.

Manual Language Systems (After Prague Structuralism)

For example, an atypical collocation creates a contextual emotive sign, such as Men of a ripe old age were hopping around here. I later developed the concept of word combinations as signs and their struc- turation also in my CSc. Semiotic Concepts of the Prague Linguistic Circle I did not publish my doctoral dissertation on Functions of linguistic repetition on materials of Russian and Spanish dialogues in its entirety, but a great part of it was published in a series of articles in a number of countries in various languages in the seventies and eighties. Here, I formed my irst theory of emotive language and com- pared the emotive and non-emotive functions of linguistic repetition.

An important area of the Prague School that inluenced my work was func- tional sentence perspective, which was highly relevant when investigating the functions of repetition, as one of the primary functions of repetition is the emphat- ic function. However, I have also established a set of basic functions of repetition in linguistic discourse, both notional and emotive. Later, ater leaving Czechoslovakia in , I devoted myself to emphasis in more detail and created a typology of de- grees of emphasis, distinguishing between emotive and non-emotive emphasis and between the repetition of the theme and the repetition of the rheme Volek I have also worked systematically on the typological comparison of related and unrelated languages regarding the formation of emotive signs.

While elaborating the diference between expression and denotation and the typology of emotive signs, I created the notion of the excitizer, i.


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  • I discovered that emotive meanings behave substantially diferently in each of these categories. I worked ex- tensively with diminutives and augmentatives and found that these are not seman- tically parallel categories, but difer from each other by the fact that diminutives function predominantly on the basis of an evaluational seme, while augmentatives function on the basis of an intesiicational and thus quantitative seme.

    Diminutives express invariably a positive or ambivalent atitude to the object referred to unless the meaning is ironically reevaluated. In diminutives, on the other hand, the size hardly maters. In many languages they serve predominantly as forms of endearment. My conclusions were made on the basis of analyzing three thousand uses in colloquial contexts. I discovered that emotive signs, apart from the most simple ones interjec- tions are usually formed with the help of an inner form of various kinds, i.

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    I succeeded in creating not only a system of emotive signs from the most simple to the most complex, i. Speciic semes divide into particularizing, intensiicational, emphatic and evaluative according to growing speciicity. With the growing speciicity of the seme and diminishing vagueness of the notional meaning, the emotive power is diminishing and the notional part of the meaning is geting stronger.

    Emotive discourse is thus oten tied to an actual situation and most frequently appears in a colloquial style. Another functional style that is characterized by the rich use of emotive elements is the poetic one. A further realm of importance for the theory of emotive semantics was the question of stimulus of emotion vs.

    Stimulus and emotion are structured diferently in diferent types of derived nouns and in diferent types of linguistic discourses. For example, in a modiicational derivative the situmulus and the emotion are easily discernable as two parts of the derivative. However, in a mutational derivative like, say, durak, the suix does not express an emotional atitude to the root durnoj, but to the person characterized by a high degree of this quality. Stimulus and emotion in such words cannot be separated.

    Underived lexemes that are emotionally saturated, like shit, do not refer to the stimulus at all which has to be understood from the context verbal or non-verbal. Moreover, the systemic character of the development of language was first characterized in this context. Prague functionalism is of importance both for analyzing language as a system linking expressions and meanings and for pragmatic studies of the interactive features of communication.

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    It differs from other trends of structural linguistics by concentrating on semantic functions of language units and on pragmatic aspects of the use of language and of its varieties. Therefore the achievements of its classical period, although not stated in the shape of a fully explicit formal framework, still offer insights fruitful for inquiries into pragmatically oriented linguistic studies.

    1 Structuralism: Language as a System

    Sentence structure itself has been understood as comprising a patterning conditioned by the interactively based role of the sentence in context, in discourse. Even though the Prague School tradition was interrupted by the war events and later severely hampered by the ruling totalitarian ideology, studies have continued.

    Empirical and theoretical frameworks handling certain pragmatic aspects of discourse patterns have been elaborated. Along with a broad range of results in various synchronic and diachronic domains of general linguistics, of Slavistics, of English studies and so on, a specific approach to the formal description of language has been formulated. Dokulil, M.